Basic English grammar for students, Betty Azar


Название: Basic English grammar.

Автор: Betty Azar.

1996.

Basic English Grammar is a developmental skills text for students of English as a second or foreign language. Serving as both a reference and a workbook, it introduces students to the form, meaning, and usage of basic structures in English. It provides ample practice through extensive and varied written and oral exercises.

Данное учебное пособие было издано в 1996 году, но можно с уверенностью сказать, что до сих пор это один из лучших учебников для начинающих изучать английский. В начале каждого топика прилагается грамматический материал. Великолепнейшие схемы и таблицы. После грамматической части идут упражнения с интересными забавными картинкам.

Basic English grammar - Betty Azar


Writing English grammar texts is a pleasure for me. In this pursuit, I am helped by many wonderful people: dedicated teachers who give presentations at conferences and write articles for regional newsletters or international journals; researchers who explore the hows and whys of second language acquisition; grammarians who present their observations clearly and convincingly; past and present authors of other ESL/EFL grammar materials who show creative and sound approaches to helping students gain understanding and usage ability of English; colleagues who give me valuable feedback and share their pedagogical insights; and publishing professionals who know how to mold and market educational materials. We all rely on one another.
Above all, I am indebted to my students, who have taught me a great deal about the language acquisition process by openly sharing with me their learning experiences and practical needs.
In sum, I am indebted to the ESL/EFL community of teachers, researchers, authors, publishers, and students.
In particular, I thank Tina Carver, Janet Johnston, and Shelley Hartle for their invaluable professionalism as well as friendship. I also wish to thank Barbara iViatthies, Irene Juzkiw, Stacy Hagen, Nancy Price, Lawrence Cisar, Don Martinetu, Lizette Reyes, Stella Reilly, Marita Froimson, Joy Edwards, R.T. Stcltz, Sue Van Etten, Ken Kortlever, Gencressa Aricllc, and Chelsea Azar. My gratitude goes also to the many wonderful teachers and publishers I met in Korea, Japan, and Taiwan on my trip to Asia in 1994.

CONTENTS
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION ix
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x
Chapter 1 USING BE AND HAVE
1-1 NOUN + IS + NOUN: SINGULAR 2
1-2 NOUN + ARE + NOUN: PLURAL 4
1-3 PRONOUN + BE + NOUN 6
1-4 CONTRACTIONS WITH BE 7
1-5 NEGATIVE WITH BE 8
1-6 BE + ADJECTIVE 10
1-7 BE + A LOCATION 16
1-8 SUMMARY: SENTENCE PATTERNS WITH BE 20
1-9 YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH BE 21
1-10 QUESTIONS WITH BE: USING WHERE 24
1-11 USING HAVE AND HAS 26
1-12 USING MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR 27
1-13 USING THIS AND THAT 30
1-14 USING THESE AND THOSE 31
1-15 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WHAT AND WHO + BE 32
Chapter 2 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 1)
2-1 FORM AND BASIC MEANING OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 44
2-2 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS: ALWA YS, USUALLY, OFTEN,
SOMETIMES, SELDOM, RARELY, NEVER 46
2-3 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS WITH BE 47
2-4 PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL-5;/Z/AND/S/ 49
2-5 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -ES 51
2-6 ADDING FINAL -S/-ES TO WORDS THAT END IN -Y 51
2-7 IRREGULAR SINGULAR VERBS: HAS, DOES, GOES 52
2-8 SUMMARY: SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF -S AND -ES 54
2-9 THE SLMPLE PRESENT: NEGATIVE 57
2-10 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: YES/NO QUESTIONS 61
2-11 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS
WITH WHERE 64
2-12 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS
WITH WHEN AND WHAT TIME 66
2-13 SUMMARY: INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH BE AND DO 67
2-14 USING ITTO TALK ABOUT TIME 72
2-15 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME 73
2-16 USING /ГТО TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER 74
Chapter 3 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 2)
3-1 BE + -/NG THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE 84
3-2 SPELLING OF-/iVG 87
3-3 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: QUESTIONS 89
3-4 THE SIMPLE PRESENT vs THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE 92
3-5 NONACTION VERBS NOT USED IN THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE 95
3-6 SEE, LOOK AT, WATCH, HEAR, AND LISTEN TO 97
3-7 NEED AND WANT + A NOUN OR AN INFINITIVE 98
3-8 WOULD LIKE 100
3-9 WOULD LIKE vs LIKE 101
3-10 THINK ABOUT AND THINK THAT 102
3-11 THERE + BE 106
3-12 THERE + BE YES/NO QUESTIONS 107
3-13 THERE + BE: ASKING QUESTIONS WITH HOW MANY 109
3-14 PREPOSITIONS OF LOCATION Ill
Chapter 4 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
4-1 NOUNS: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS 127
4-2 ADJECTIVE + NOUN 129
4-3 SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS 131
4-4 NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL 134
4-5 NOUNS: IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS 139
4-6 NOUNS: COUNT AND NONCOUNT 141
4-7 USING AN vs A 143
4-8 USING A/AN vs SOME 144
4-9 MEASUREMENTS WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS 150
4-10 USING THE 156
4-11 USING 0 (NO ARTICLE) TO MAKE GENERALIZATIONS 160
4-12 USING SOME AND ANY 161
4-13 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: SOMETHING, SOMEONE,
ANYTHING, ANYONE 163
4-14 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: NOTHING AND NO ONE 164
Chapter 5 EXPRESSING PAST TIME
5-1 USING BE: PAST TIME 171
5-2 PAST OF BE: NEGATIVE 172
5-3 PAST OF DH: QUESTIONS 173
5-4 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: USING -ED 177
5-5 PAST TIME WORDS: YESTERDAУ, LAST, AND AGO 178
5-6 PRONUNCIATION OF -ED /t/3/d/, AND /3d/ 180
5-7 SPELLING OF-ED VERBS 183
5-8 SPELLING OF -ED AND -ING: TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS 186
5-9 THE SIMPLE PAST: IRREGULAR VERBS 190
5-10 THE SIMPLE PAST: NEGATIVE 192
5-11 THE SIMPLE PAST! YES/NO QUESTIONS 194
5-12 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 198
5-13 THE SIMPLE PAST: USING WHERE WHEN, WHAT TIME,
AND WHY 203
5-14 QUESTIONS WITH WHAT 206
5-15 QUESTIONS WITH WHO 209
5-16 ASKING ABOUT THE MEANING OF A WORD 212
5-17 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 213
5-18 BEFORE AND AFTER IN TIME CLAUSES 216
5-19 WHEAT IN TIME CLAUSES 219
Chapter 6 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME
6-1 FUTURE TIME: USING BE GOING TO 231
6-2 WORDS DSED FOR PAST TIME AND FUTURE TIME 235
6-3 USING A COUPLE OF OR A FEW WITH AGO (PAST) AND
IN (FUTURE) 238
6-4 USING TODAY TONIGHT, AND THIS + MORNING
AFTERNOON, EVENING, WEEK, MONTH, YEAR 239
6-5 FUTURE TIME: USING WILL 242
6-6 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WILL 243
6-7 VERB SUMMARY: PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE 245
6-8 VERB SUMMARY: FORMS OF BE 246
6-9 USING И7МГ+A FORM OF DO 251
6-10 MAY/MIGHT vs WILL 253
6-11 MAYBE (ONE WORD) vs MAYBE (TWO WORDS) 255
6-12 FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH BEFORE AFTER, AND WHEN 258
6-13 CLAUSES WITH IF 260
6-14 EXPRESSING HABITUAL PRESENT WITH ТЬМЕ CLAUSES AND
/F-CLAUSES 263
6-15 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 266
6-16 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 270
Chapter 7 EXPRESSING ABILITY
7-1 USING CAN 281
7-2 USING CAN: QUESTIONS 282
7-3 USING KNOW HOW TO 284
7-4 USING COULD: PAST OF CAN 285
7-5 USING VERY AND TOO + ADJECTIVE 287
7-6 USING TOO MANY AND TOO MUCH + NOUN 290
7-7 USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE 293
7-8 USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + FOR (SOMEONE) + INFINITIVE 294
7-9 USING ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH 295
7-10 USING ENOUGH + NOUN AND MORE + NOUN 297
7-11 USING ENOUGH + INFINITIVE 299
7-12 USING BE ABLE TO 301
7-13 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, AND CAN I 302
7-14 POLITE QUESTIONS: COULD FOUAND WOULD YOU 304
7-15 IMPERATIVE SENTENCES 307
7-16 USING TWO, TOO, AND TO 310
7-17 MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS: AT AND IN FOR LOCATIONS 311
7-18 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 321
Chapter 8 NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
8-1 MODIFYING NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS 325
8-2 WORD ORDER OF ADJECTIVES 329
8-3 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ALL OF, MOST OF, SOME OF 334
8-4 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 336
8-5 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE OF, NONE OF 337
8-6 USING EVERY 341
8-7 POSSESSrVE NOUNS 343
8-8 POSSESSIVE: IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS 345
8-9 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: MINE, YOURS, HIS, HERS,
OURS, THEIRS 347
8-10 QUESTIONS WITH WHOSE 351
8-11 SUMMARY: USES OF THE APOSTROPHE 352
8-12 SUMMARY: USES OF NOUNS 355
8-13 CONNECTED NOUNS: NOUN + AND/OR + NOUN 357
8-14 SUMMARY: USES OF ADJECTIVES 360
8-15 SUMMARY: PERSONAL PRONOUNS 363
8-16 INDIRECT OBJECTS 364
8-17 INDIRECT OBJECTS: USING FOR 367
8-18 INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH BUY, GET, MAKE 369
8-19 INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH EXPLAIN AND INTRODUCE 370
8-20 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 375
Chapter 9 MAKING COMPARISONS
9-1 COMPARISONS: USING THE SAME (AS), SIMILAR (TO),
AND DIFFERENT (FROM) 379
9-2 COMPARISONS: USING LIKE AND ALIKE 382
9-3 THE COMPARATIVE: USING -ER AND MORE 383
9-4 USING AS AS; USING LESS 389
9-5 USING BUT 393
9-6 USING VERBS AFTER BUT 395
9-7 THE SUPERLATIVE: USING -EST AND MOST 398
9-8 USING ONE OF + SUPERLATP7E + PLURAL NOUN 405
9-9 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS 411
9-10 MAKING COMPARISONS WITH ADVERBS 414
9-11 USING AS AS WITH ADVERBS 416
Chapter 10 EXPRESSING IDEAS WITH VERBS
10-1 USING SHOULD 420
10-2 USING LET'S 423
10-3 USING HAVE + INFINITIVE (HAS TO/HAVE TO) 424
10-4 USING MUST 427
10-5 MODAL AUXILIARIES 430
10-6 SUMMARY CHART: MODAL AUXILIARIES AND
SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS 431
10-7 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE 434
10-8 USING WHILE WITH THE PAST PROGRESSIVE 438
10-9 WHILE vs WHENJN PAST TIME CLAUSES 438
10-10 SIMPLE PAST vs PAST PROGRESSIVE 440
10-11 USING HAVE BEEN (THE PRESENT PERFECT) 444
10-12 USING SINCE-CLAUSES 446
10-13 FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT 448
10-14 USING NEVER WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT 449
10-15 PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVES 450
10-16 USING EVER WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT 451
10-17 THE PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS WITH HOW LONG 453
10-18 PAST PARTICIPLES OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS 455
Appendix 1 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Al
Appendix 2 NUMBERS A2
Appendix 3 DAYS OF THE WEEK AND MONTHS OF THE YEAR A3
Appendix 4 WAYS OF SAYING THE TIME A4
Appendix 5 IRREGULAR VERBS A5
INDEX INDEX 1



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