Basic English grammar - Betty Azar


Название: Basic English grammar

Автор: Betty Azar.

1996.

Basic English Grammar is a developmental skills text for students of English as a second or foreign language. Serving as both a reference and a workbook, it introduces students to the form, meaning, and usage of basic structures in English. It provides ample practice through extensive and varied written and oral exercises.

Basic English grammar - Betty Azar


2. Horses aren't inserts. They're animals. 3. Asia isn't a country It's a
continent. 4. Bees and ants aren't animals They're insects 5. Arabic isn't a
country It's a language 6. I'm not a processional photographer I'm a student
7. Ann isn't a gardener She's a photographer 8. Mike is a gardener. He isn't an artist. 9. Jim isn't a bus driver He's an artist 10. Sue isn't a
photographer She's a doctor/nurse 11. Mr Rice is a police officer He isn't a
bus driver/an artist/a doctor/a gardener/a photographer 12. Ms. Black isn't an artist/a police outlier/a gardener/a photographer/a doctor She's a bus driver.


CONTENTS
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Chapter 1 USING BE AND HAVE
1-1 NOUN + IS + NOUN: SINGULAR 2
1-2 NOUN + ARE + NOUN: PLURAL 4
1-3 PRONOUN + BE + NOUN 6
1-4 CONTRACTIONS WITH BE 7
1-5 NEGATIVE WITH BE 8
1-6 BE + ADJECTIVE 10
1-7 BE + A LOCATION 16
1-8 SUMMARY: SENTENCE PATTERNS WITH BE 20
1-9 YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH BE 21
1-10 QUESTIONS WITH BE: USING WHERE 24
1-11 USING HAVE AND HAS 26
1-12 USING MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR 27
1-13 USING THIS AND THAT 30
1-14 USING THESE AND THOSE 31
1-15 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WHAT AND WHO + BE 32
Chapter 2 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 1)
2-1 FORM AND BASIC MEANING OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 44
2-2 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS: ALWA YS, USUALLY, OFTEN,
SOMETIMES, SELDOM, RARELY, NEVER 46
2-3 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS WITH BE 47
2-4 PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL-5;/Z/AND/S/ 49
2-5 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -ES 51
2-6 ADDING FINAL -S/-ES TO WORDS THAT END IN -Y 51
2-7 IRREGULAR SINGULAR VERBS: HAS, DOES, GOES 52
2-8 SUMMARY: SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF -S AND -ES 54
2-9 THE SLMPLE PRESENT: NEGATIVE 57
2-10 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: YES/NO QUESTIONS 61
2-11 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS
WITH WHERE 64
2-12 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS
WITH WHEN AND WHAT TIME 66
2-13 SUMMARY: INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH BE AND DO 67
2-14 USING ITTO TALK ABOUT TIME 72
2-15 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME 73
2-16 USING /ГТО TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER 74
Chapter 3 EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME (PART 2)
3-1 BE + -/NG THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE 84
3-2 SPELLING OF-/iVG 87
3-3 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: QUESTIONS 89
3-4 THE SIMPLE PRESENT vs THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE 92
3-5 NONACTION VERBS NOT USED IN THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE 95
3-6 SEE, LOOK AT, WATCH, HEAR, AND LISTEN TO 97
3-7 NEED AND WANT + A NOUN OR AN INFINITIVE 98
3-8 WOULD LIKE 100
3-9 WOULD LIKE vs LIKE 101
3-10 THINK ABOUT AND THINK THAT 102
3-11 THERE + BE 106
3-12 THERE + BE YES/NO QUESTIONS 107
3-13 THERE + BE: ASKING QUESTIONS WITH HOW MANY 109
3-14 PREPOSITIONS OF LOCATION Ill
Chapter 4 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
4-1 NOUNS: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS 127
4-2 ADJECTIVE + NOUN 129
4-3 SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS 131
4-4 NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL 134
4-5 NOUNS: IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS 139
4-6 NOUNS: COUNT AND NONCOUNT 141
4-7 USING AN vs A 143
4-8 USING A/AN vs SOME 144
4-9 MEASUREMENTS WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS 150
4-10 USING THE 156
4-11 USING 0 (NO ARTICLE) TO MAKE GENERALIZATIONS 160
4-12 USING SOME AND ANY 161
4-13 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: SOMETHING, SOMEONE,
ANYTHING, ANYONE 163
4-14 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: NOTHING AND NO ONE 164
Chapter 5 EXPRESSING PAST TIME
5-1 USING BE: PAST TIME 171
5-2 PAST OF BE: NEGATIVE 172
5-3 PAST OF DH: QUESTIONS 173
5-4 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: USING -ED 177
5-5 PAST TIME WORDS: YESTERDAУ, LAST, AND AGO 178
5-6 PRONUNCIATION OF -ED /t/3/d/, AND /3d/ 180
5-7 SPELLING OF-ED VERBS 183
5-8 SPELLING OF -ED AND -ING: TWO-SYLLABLE VERBS 186
5-9 THE SIMPLE PAST: IRREGULAR VERBS 190
5-10 THE SIMPLE PAST: NEGATIVE 192
5-11 THE SIMPLE PAST! YES/NO QUESTIONS 194
5-12 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 198
5-13 THE SIMPLE PAST: USING WHERE WHEN, WHAT TIME,
AND WHY 203
5-14 QUESTIONS WITH WHAT 206
5-15 QUESTIONS WITH WHO 209
5-16 ASKING ABOUT THE MEANING OF A WORD 212
5-17 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 213
5-18 BEFORE AND AFTER IN TIME CLAUSES 216
5-19 WHEAT IN TIME CLAUSES 219
Chapter 6 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME
6-1 FUTURE TIME: USING BE GOING TO 231
6-2 WORDS DSED FOR PAST TIME AND FUTURE TIME 235
6-3 USING A COUPLE OF OR A FEW WITH AGO (PAST) AND
IN (FUTURE) 238
6-4 USING TODAY TONIGHT, AND THIS + MORNING
AFTERNOON, EVENING, WEEK, MONTH, YEAR 239
6-5 FUTURE TIME: USING WILL 242
6-6 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WILL 243
6-7 VERB SUMMARY: PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE 245
6-8 VERB SUMMARY: FORMS OF BE 246
6-9 USING И7МГ+A FORM OF DO 251
6-10 MAY/MIGHT vs WILL 253
6-11 MAYBE (ONE WORD) vs MAYBE (TWO WORDS) 255
6-12 FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH BEFORE AFTER, AND WHEN 258
6-13 CLAUSES WITH IF 260
6-14 EXPRESSING HABITUAL PRESENT WITH ТЬМЕ CLAUSES AND
/F-CLAUSES 263
6-15 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 266
6-16 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 270
Chapter 7 EXPRESSING ABILITY
7-1 USING CAN 281
7-2 USING CAN: QUESTIONS 282
7-3 USING KNOW HOW TO 284
7-4 USING COULD: PAST OF CAN 285
7-5 USING VERY AND TOO + ADJECTIVE 287
7-6 USING TOO MANY AND TOO MUCH + NOUN 290
7-7 USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE 293
7-8 USING TOO + ADJECTIVE + FOR (SOMEONE) + INFINITIVE 294
7-9 USING ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH 295
7-10 USING ENOUGH + NOUN AND MORE + NOUN 297
7-11 USING ENOUGH + INFINITIVE 299
7-12 USING BE ABLE TO 301
7-13 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, AND CAN I 302
7-14 POLITE QUESTIONS: COULD FOUAND WOULD YOU 304
7-15 IMPERATIVE SENTENCES 307
7-16 USING TWO, TOO, AND TO 310
7-17 MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS: AT AND IN FOR LOCATIONS 311
7-18 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 321
Chapter 8 NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
8-1 MODIFYING NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS 325
8-2 WORD ORDER OF ADJECTIVES 329
8-3 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ALL OF, MOST OF, SOME OF 334
8-4 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 336
8-5 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE OF, NONE OF 337
8-6 USING EVERY 341
8-7 POSSESSrVE NOUNS 343
8-8 POSSESSIVE: IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS 345
8-9 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: MINE, YOURS, HIS, HERS,
OURS, THEIRS 347
8-10 QUESTIONS WITH WHOSE 351
8-11 SUMMARY: USES OF THE APOSTROPHE 352
8-12 SUMMARY: USES OF NOUNS 355
8-13 CONNECTED NOUNS: NOUN + AND/OR + NOUN 357
8-14 SUMMARY: USES OF ADJECTIVES 360
8-15 SUMMARY: PERSONAL PRONOUNS 363
8-16 INDIRECT OBJECTS 364
8-17 INDIRECT OBJECTS: USING FOR 367
8-18 INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH BUY, GET, MAKE 369
8-19 INDIRECT OBJECTS WITH EXPLAIN AND INTRODUCE 370
8-20 MORE IRREGULAR VERBS 375
Chapter 9 MAKING COMPARISONS
9-1 COMPARISONS: USING THE SAME (AS), SIMILAR (TO),
AND DIFFERENT (FROM) 379
9-2 COMPARISONS: USING LIKE AND ALIKE 382
9-3 THE COMPARATIVE: USING -ER AND MORE 383
9-4 USING AS AS; USING LESS 389
9-5 USING BUT 393
9-6 USING VERBS AFTER BUT 395
9-7 THE SUPERLATIVE: USING -EST AND MOST 398
9-8 USING ONE OF + SUPERLATP7E + PLURAL NOUN 405
9-9 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS 411
9-10 MAKING COMPARISONS WITH ADVERBS 414
9-11 USING AS AS WITH ADVERBS 416
Chapter 10 EXPRESSING IDEAS WITH VERBS
10-1 USING SHOULD 420
10-2 USING LET'S 423
10-3 USING HAVE + INFINITIVE (HAS TO/HAVE TO) 424
10-4 USING MUST 427
10-5 MODAL AUXILIARIES 430
10-6 SUMMARY CHART: MODAL AUXILIARIES AND
SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS 431
10-7 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE 434
10-8 USING WHILE WITH THE PAST PROGRESSIVE 438
10-9 WHILE vs WHENJN PAST TIME CLAUSES 438
10-10 SIMPLE PAST vs PAST PROGRESSIVE 440
10-11 USING HAVE BEEN (THE PRESENT PERFECT) 444
10-12 USING SINCE-CLAUSES 446
10-13 FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT 448
10-14 USING NEVER WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT 449
10-15 PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVES 450
10-16 USING EVER WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT 451
10-17 THE PRESENT PERFECT: QUESTIONS WITH HOW LONG 453
10-18 PAST PARTICIPLES OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS 455
Appendix 1 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Al
Appendix 2 NUMBERS A2
Appendix 3 DAYS OF THE WEEK AND MONTHS OF THE YEAR A3
Appendix 4 WAYS OF SAYING THE TIME A4
Appendix 5 IRREGULAR VERBS A5
INDEX INDEX 1



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