English Grammar in Use, 2 edition, Murphy R., 1994


English Grammar in Use, 2 edition, Murphy R., 1994.
 
  This book is for students who want help with English grammar. It is written for you to use without a teacher.
The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers to questions like these:
What is the difference between I did and I have done?
When do we use will for the future?
What is the structure after I wish?
When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing?
When do we use the?
What is the difference between like and as?

English Grammar in Use, 2 edition, Murphy R., 1994


How long have you (been)...?
Study this example situation:
Bob and Alice are married. They got married exactly 20 years ago, so today is their 20th wedding anniversary.
They have been married for 20 years.
We say:
They are married. (present)
but How long have they been married? (present perfect) (not ‘How long are they married?’)
They have been married for 20 years.
(not ‘They are married for 20 years’)

We use the present perfect to talk about something that began in the past and still continues now. Compare the present and the present perfect:
Amy is in hospital.
but She has been in hospital since Monday, (not ‘Amy is in hospital since Monday’)
We know each other very well.
but We have known each other for a long time, (not ‘we know’)
Are you waiting for somebody? but How long have you been waiting?



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