Практическая фонетика английского языка, Соколова М.А., 2008


Практическая фонетика английского языка, Соколова М.А., 2008.

  Учебник представляет собой нормативный курс фонетики английского языка. Цель учебника — формирование навыков правильного английского произношения и профессиональной ориентации студентов, т. е. обучение студентов тому, как использовать полученные знания и умения в дальнейшей педагогической деятельности.
Учебник состоит из теоретической части, где излагаются основные моменты теории фонетики английского языка, и практической, включающей упражнения, направленные на закрепление и практическое усвоение материала.

Практическая фонетика английского языка, Соколова М.А., 2008


ARTICULATION AND BREATHING PRACTICE.
In order to acquire correct pronunciation, to manipulate the organs of speech one is to be taught breathing technique. The first and the most important thing in any system of voice exercises is the formation and control of the breath. We never breathe out completely in speech. Complete exhalation takes place only in breathing exercises. In normal breathing there is some reserve breath remaining in the lungs. The exercises given below will help you to control your breath, as breath control is the keynote of all that is necessary for speaking.

The mass of air breathed in is kept in the lungs. The lungs are inclosed in the region covered by the ribs, and extending upward, they fill the chest cavity except for the space for the heart. While breathing we fill only the upper part of the lungs with air, but for speaking and singing it is necessary to fill the lower part of the lungs. This is reached with the help of the diaphragm.

CONTENTS
Introduction
Part One. The Production of Speech
Chapter I. The Organs of Speech and Their Work
Chapter II. Articulation and Breathing Practice
Part Two. The Sounds of Speech     
Chapter I. Sounds and Phonemes
Vowels and Consonants
Chapter II. Consonants. Principles of Classification
Class A. Noise Consonants
Constrictive Fricative Consonants   
Occlusive-Constrictive Consonants
Class B. Sonorous Consonants
Chapter III. Modification of Consonants in Connected Speech
Assimilation
Fundamental Consonant Allophones
Chapter IV. Vowels. Principles of Classification
Monophthongs
Diphthongoids
Diphthongs
Vowel Sequences
Chapter V. Modification of Vowels in Connected Speech
Reduction
Chapter VI. Strong and Weak Forms
Part Three. Syllable Structure
Chapter I. Syllable Formation
Chapter II. Syllable Division
Part Four. Word Stress   
Chapter I. Manifestation of Word Stress and Its Linguistic
Function
Chapter II. The Degrees and the Position of Word Stress
Part Five. Intonation
Chapter I. Manifestation of Intonation and Its Linguistic
Function
Chapter II. Basic Intonation Patterns
Emphasis
Classification of Intonation Patterns
Intonation Patterns and Meaning
Group I. Low Fall ,
Group II. High Fall
Group III. Rise-Fall
Group IV. Low Rise
Group V. High Rise
Group VI. Fall-Rise (High Fall + Rise)
Group VII. Rise-Fall-Rise
Group VIII. Mid-Level  
Chapter III. Intonation Patterns and Sentence Types
Chapter IV. Sequence of Tones
Chapter V. Sentence-Stress   
Manifestation of Sentence-Stress
Types of Sentence-Stress   
Chapter VI. Tempo of Speech
Chapter VII. Rhythm
Part Six. Phonostylistics
Chapter I. General Considerations   
Chapter II. Stylistic Use of Intonation
Chapter III. Intonational Styles
Informational (Formal) Style
Scientific (Academic) Style
Declamatory Style   
Publicistic Style
Familiar (Conversational) Style
Intonational Styles and Modification of Sounds in Connected Speech   
Part Seven. Patterns of Exercises
Sounds of Speech   
Syllable Structure
Word Stress   
Stylistic Use of Intonation.



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