The Official Guide to the TOEFL, Test, Fourth Edition, 2012

The Official Guide to the TOEFL, Test, Fourth Edition, 2012.

   The test questions in the Offi cial Guide to the TOEFL® Test are from actual TOEFL iBT® tests. However, the screen and delivery formats are not identical to the actual test. When you take the actual test, you may notice some variations in how the questions are presented to you on screen.

The Official Guide to the TOEFL, Test, Fourth Edition, 2012


THE ORIGINS OF CETACEANS.
It should be obvious that cetaceans—whales, porpoises, and dolphins—are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke1 and blowhole ca|nnot disguise their affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like. Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale. The fossil was officially named Pakicetus in honor of the country where the discovery was made. Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old. The river that formed these deposits was actually not far from an ancient ocean known as the Tethys Sea.

Contents.
1 About the TOEFL iBT® Test.
Getting Started.
How to Use This Book.
All About the TOEFL iBT Test.
Reading Section.
Listening Section.
Speaking Section.
Writing Section.
About Test Scores.
General Skill-building Tips.
Test Preparation Tips from ETS.
Questions Frequently Asked by Test Takers.
2 Reading Section.
Reading Passages.
Reading Questions.
Basic Information and Inferencing Questions.
Reading to Leam Questions.
Strategies for Preparing for the Reading Section.
Reading Practice Sets.
Practice Set 1.
Practice Set 2.
Practice Set 3.
Practice Set 4.
Practice Set 5.
Practice Set 6.
3 Listening Section.
Listening Materials.
Listening Questions.
Basic Comprehension Questions.
Pragmatic Understanding Questions.
Connecting Information Questions.
Strategies for Preparing for the Listening Section.
Listening Practice Sets.
Practice Set 1.
Practice Set 2.
Practice Set 3.
Practice Set 4.
Practice Set 5.
4 Speaking Section.
The Speaking Section.
Speaking Question Types.
Independent: Questions 1 and 2.
Integrated Reading,Listening/Speaking: Questions 3 and 4.
Integrated Listening/Speaking: Questions 5 and 6.
Speaking Scoring Rubric.
Strategics for Preparing for the Speaking Section.
Frequently Asked Questions About the TOEFL Speaking Section.
5 Writing Section.
The Writing Section.
The Integrated Writing Task.
How the Task Is Phrased.
Strategies for Preparing for the Integrated Writing Task.
Integrated Writing Scoring Rubric.
Sample Scored Responses for the Integrated Writing Task.
The Independent Writing Task.
Hew Essays Are Scored.
Independent Writing Scoring Rubric.
Sample Scored Responses for the Independent Writing Task.
Independent Writing Topics.
Topic List.
6 Authentic TOEFL Practice Test 1.
Reading.
Listening.
Speaking.
Writing.
Answers. Explanations, and Listening Scripts.
7 Authentic TOEFL Practice Test 2.
Reading.
Listening.
Speaking.
Writing.
Answers. Explanations, and Listening Scripts.
8 Authentic TOEFL Practice Test 3.
Reading.
Listening.
Speaking.
Writing.
Answers. Explanations, and Listening Scripts.
9 Writer's Handbook for English Language Learners.
Grammar.
Usage.
Mechanics.
Style.
Organization and Development.
Advice to Writer's.
Revising, Editing, and Proofreading.
Glossary.
Appendix: Performance Feedback for Test Takers.



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