Автор: Gerald Kelly.
This book aims to help teachers gain theoretical knowledge and to confirm and extend what they already know. It also suggests a variety of practical ideas, skills and activities for the classroom. The book shows teachers how to integrate pronunciation work with the treatment of grammar and lexis in order to help students appreciate its relevance and importance for successful communication.
Chapter 1 explores the features and physiology of pronunciation, and introduces phonemic transcription.
Chapter 2 deals with various approaches to teaching pronunciation, and introduces three types of lesson: "Integrated lessons, where pronunciation is fully integrated with the other aspects of the language being taught; Remedial lessons and activities, which deal with pronunciation difficulties and issues which arise in class; and Practice lessons and activities, where particular aspects of pronunciation are addressed in their own right.
Chapters 3 to 8 separate out various areas of pronunciation, and cover - theory, factual knowledge and ideas for the classroom.
All the chapters except the first one contain a range of sample lessons which demonstrate Integrated, Remedial and Practice lesson types.
The Task File at the back of the book comprises a number of tasks relevant to each chapter. They can be used for individual study and reflection, or for discussion and revision in a training context. An answer key is provided where appropriate.
The appendices offer a newly designed learners' reference chart of English sounds, a summary of common pronunciation difficulties, a set of sound and spelling tables, and suggestions for further reading.
The Compact Disc accompanying the book contains examples of sounds and sentences from the text. The relevant CD track numbers are indicated within the book by the symbol on the left.
With regard to utterances, we can analyze and teach intonation as well as stress, although as features they can at times be quite hard to consciously recognize and to describe. Stress gives rhythm to speech. One or more words within each utterance are selected by the speaker as worthy of stressing, and thus made prominent to the listener. Intonation, on the other hand, is the way in which the pitch of the voice goes up and down in the course of an utterance. (When discussing speech the term utterance is used rather than 'sentence', as it refers to anything we say including grammatically incomplete sentences, and to different ways of saying the same sentence.)
Utterance stress and intonation patterns are often linked to the communication of meaning. For example, in the following utterance the speaker is asking a question for the first time. In this particular instance as you can hear on the CD, the pitch of her voice starts relatively high and falls at the end, finishing relatively low. This intonation pattern is shown here using an arrow.
1 The description of speech 1
What are the main features of pronunciation?
The physiology of pronunciation
The articulation of phonemes
Phonetics and phonology
2 Teaching pronunciation 11
Why teach pronunciation?
Problems and approaches in pronunciation teaching
What pronunciation model to teach
Techniques and activities
3 Vowels 29
The characteristics of the 'pure' vowel sounds
The characteristics of diphthongs
Raising awareness of vowel sounds
Further ideas for activities
4 Consonants 47
The characteristics of the consonant sounds
Raising awareness of consonant sounds
Further ideas for activities
5 Word and sentence stress 66
What is word stress?
What is unstress?
Rules of word stress
Levels of stress
Sentences: Stress timing and syllable timing
Sentence stress and tonic syllables
Sentence stress and weak forms
Raising awareness of word and sentence stress
Further ideas for activities
Pnrrinp- sentence stress into nersnective
6 Intonation 86
What is intonation, and why teach it?
Tones, tonic syllables and tone units
Grammar and intonation
Attitude and intonation
Discourse and intonation
How teachable is intonation?
7 Other aspects of connected speech 108
Why 'other' aspects of connected speech?
Linking and intrusion
Should we teach these aspects of connected speech?
8 Pronunciation and spelling 122
English spelling is not phonetic
Regular features of English pronunciation and spelling
Problems and approaches in the teaching of pronunciation and spelling
Task File 132
Task File Key 141
Appendix A: Learners' reference chart of English sounds
Appendix B: Common pronunciation difficulties
Appendix C: Spelling and pronunciation tables
Appendix D: Further reading
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