Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan


Название: Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition.

Автор: Michael Swan.

2005.

The world's most trusted guide to problems in English - now in a new edition.
Overview
A dictionary of problem points in the English language as encountered by learners and their teachers. Common problems are solved with practical, clear information in over 600 entries.
Who is it for?
Teachers of English.
Higher-level students of English (working alone or in class).
Key features
Thoroughly revised following extensive research with current users of the book.
New features make it easier for users to find their way around the book.
All the most popular entries are retained, but almost all the entries have been modified to make them clearer and more effective in solving readers' problems.
Explanations and examples now based on current corpus research.
New entries on 'Kinds of English', covering standard English and dialects, correctness, spoken and written English, formality, and variation and change.

Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan


I am grateful to all the people who have helped me with the preparation of this third edition. A large number of teachers in different countries were kind enough to respond to an enquiry asking how they felt Practical English Usage could be improved: their feedback was extremely helpful, and 1 am very much in their debt. I am also greatly indebted to David Baker, whose comments and suggestions have added very significantly to the accuracy and clarity of the book, and to Hideo Hibino and Kenji Kashino, who have contributed valuable advice on specific problems. Many other teachers and students - too many to name -have taken the trouble to suggest ways in which particular entries could be improved; their input has benefited the book considerably. My use of the internet as a source of instances of authentic usage has been greatly facilitated by the kind assistance of Hiroaki Sato, of Senshu University, Japan, who made available his excellent software tool KwiconGugle. I must also reacknowledge my debt to Jonathan Blundell, Norman Coe, Michio Kawakami, Michael Macfarlane, Nigel Middlemiss, Keith Mitchell, Catherine Walter, Gareth Watkins, and the many other consultants and correspondents whose help and advice with the preparation of the first and second editions continue as an important contribution to the third.
Any pedagogic grammarian owes an enormous debt to the academic linguists on whose research he or she is parasitic. There is not enough space to mention all the scholars of the last hundred years or so on whose work I have drawn directly or indirectly, even if I had a complete record of my borrowings. But I must at least pay homage to two monumental reference works of the present generation: the Comprehensive Grammar of the English language, by Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech and Svartvik (Longman 1985), and the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, by Huddleston, Pullum and others (Cambridge University Press 2002). Their authoritative accounts of the facts of English structure and usage constitute an essential source of information for anyone writing pedagogic grammar materials today.




Бесплатно скачать электронную книгу в удобном формате и читать:

Скачать книгу Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan - fileskachat.com, быстрое и бесплатное скачивание.

Скачать




Скачать - Книгу - Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan - depositfiles.com


Скачать - Книгу - Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan - letitbit.net


Contents Overview
verbs, tense and aspect
future 211-221
present tenses 461-466
past simple and progressive 421-422 perfect verb forms 427 present perfect 455-460 past perfect 423 125 progressive (continuous) verb forms 470 72
past verb form with present or
future meaning 426 tense simplification in subordinate
clauses (present for future, past for would etc) 580
be, do, have and modal auxiliaries
auxiliary verbs 85
be 89-92 there is 587 do 158-162 have 234-239
modal verbs 353-354 can and could 121-125 may and might 338-344 can, could, may and might
compared 345 must 358-361 ought 403 should 518-521 should, ought and must compared
520 will 629 would 633
infinitives and participles
infinitives 279-292 -ing forms 293-294 -ing forms used like nouns
(gerunds) 295-298
-ing form or infinitive after remembe,, go on etc 299
-ing and -ed forms used as adjectives (participles) 408-411
verbs: other points
active verb forms 10
passives 412-420
subjunctive 567
link verbs: be, seem, look etc 328
irregular verbs 304
verb complementaiion (what can
follow a verb?) 606 verbs with two objects 610 verb + object + complement 607 two-part verbs: phrasal verbs 599;
prepositional verbs 600
verbs of movement
(she ran in etc) 608 turning verbs into nouns 598
older English verb forms 392
nouns
singular and plural 523-532 countable and uncountable nouns
148-149 gender (references to males and
females) 222 piece- and group-words
(a bar of chocolate, a bunch
of flowers etc) 430
possessive ss 439-440 noun + noun 385-386
complementaiion (what can follow a noun?) 384
pronouns
personal pronouns
(I, me, you etc) 428-9 reflexive pronouns (myself etc) 493 each other and one another 171 indefinite pronouns (somebody,
someone, anything etc) 548 interrogaiive which, what, who etc
622-624 one: substitute word (a big one etc)
395 possessives and demonstratives: see
determiness relative who, whom, which, that etc
494-497 whoever, whatever etc 625
determiners (the, my, some, several etc)
introduciion 154
articles (a/ап and the) 61-70 possessives (my, mine etc) 441 43 demonstratives
(this, that, these, those) 589-590
all 35^10
another and other(s) 54
any 55
any and every 56
both 110
each 169
each and every 170
every (one) 193
either 174
enough 187
half 231
less and fewer 320
least and fewest 318
(a) little and (a) few 329
[a] lot 333
more 355
most 356
much and many 357
neither (of) 372
no, none and not a/any 376
so much and so many 542
some 546
some and any 547
too much and too many 596
adjectives
position 12-14
order before nouns 15
complementation (what can follow an adjective?) 19
adjectives with and 16
adjectives without nouns 17
pronuncaation of aged, naked etc 18
adverbs
position 21-25
adverbs of manner and adjectives 26 adverbs or adjectives? confusing cases 27
adverb pardcles 20
comparison
structures 135
as ... as; as much/mant as 136 comparaiive and superlaiive adjectives and adverbs 137-141
prepositions
general
introduction 448
at the ends of clauses 452
before conjunctions 453
before -ing forms 454
before and after particular words
and expressions 449 150 prepositional verbs 600 expressions without prepositions 451
particular prepositions
about and on 4
above and over 6
according to 8
across, over and through 9
along 45
(a)round and about 60
at/in and to 80
at, on and in: place 81
at, on and in: time 82
before and in front of 98
below, under, underneath
and beneath 100 between and among 105 by: time 117 by and near 118 by (method, agent) and with
(tools etc) 119 due to and owing to 166 during and for 167 during and in 168 for: purpose and cause 207 for, since, in and from: time 208 in and into, on and onto 269 in and to 270 in spite of 272 instead of 301
like and as: similarity, function 326 near (to) 365
opposite, facing and in front of 402 out of 404 through: time 592 untll 602 up and down 603 with 631
conjunctions
general
conjunctioss 510 sentence structure 511
particular conjunctions and 52
and after try, wait, go etc 53 as and though: special word order 71 as if and as though; like 74 as long as 75 as well as 78 because 94 before 97 both ... and 111 either... or 175 how 252
immediately, the moment etc 267 it's time (that) 306 lest 321
neither... nor 373 neithe,, nor and not... either 374 not only ... 383 now (that) 387 once 394
so that and in order that 543 that-clauses 583 omission of that 584 unless 601 when and if 618 whether ... or... 620 whether and if 621
word order and sentence organisation
basic word order 509 inversion (verb before subject)
302-303 fronting (e.g. People like that
I can't stand) 513 information structure 512 emphasis 184
various structures
questions 480^86 question tags 487-488 negative structures 367-371 imperatives 268, 323 (let) exclamations 195
direct speech: reporting verbs and
word order 156 indirect speech
(reported speech) 274-278
relatives
(the person who ... etc): 494-498 whoever, whatever etc 625
if 256-265
preparatory it: 446-447
cleft sentences: what I need is a
holiday 130; it was my secretary
who ... 131
ellipsis (leaving out words) 177-182
understanding complicated
sentences 515
constructing text
discourse markers (linking
expressions) 157 paragraphs 406 repetition 500
correspondence
letters 146
emails and text messages 147
spoken grammar
contractions 143 spoken structures and tags 514 short answers (Yes, he can etc) 517 reply questions (Was it? Did you?) 484
special kinds of language
abbreviations and acronyms 2 idioms, collocations and fixed expressions 255
politeness using questions 435 distancing verb forms 436 softening expressions 437 'social' language 545
varieties and styles of English American and British English 51 standard English and dialects 308 correctness 309
spoken and written English 310 formality 311 variation and change 312 abbreviated styles 1 headlines 240 slang 533 taboo words and swearwords 575
topic areas
age 32
dates 152
meals 347
measurements: 'marked' and
'unmarked' forms 350 names (Florence, Homer etc) 362 names and tides (Peter; Mr Lewis) 363 nationalities, countries and
regions 364 numbers 389 telephoning 578 telling the time 579
spelling and punctuation
spelling 556-565 punctuation 473-479
pronunciation
stress and rhythm 554
intonation 555
weak and strong forms 616
word-building

prefixes and suffixes 445
confusable words and expressions
accept and agree 7 all right and alright 41 allow, permit and let 42 almost and nearly; practically 43 alone, lonely, lonesome and lone 44 also, as well and too 46-47 alternately and alternatively 48 although, though, but and however:
contrast 49 altogether and all together 50 arise and rise 59 as, because, since and for 72 as, when and while:
simultaneous events 73 at first and first 84 (a)wake and (a)waken 86 back and again 87 bath and bathe 88 beat and win 93 begin and start 99 beside and besides 101 besides, except and apart from 102 big, large and great 106 born and borne 108 borrow and lend 109 bring and take 112 bring up and educate 113 Britain, the United Kingdom,
the British Isles and England 114 broad and wide 115 care: take care (of), care (about) and
care for 127 changes (become, get, go, grow etc) 128 city and town 129 classic and classical 254 close and shut 132 cloth and clothes 133 come and go 134 comic and comical 254
continual(ly) and continuous(ly) 142
dead, died and death 153
east and eastern, north and northern
etc 172 economic and economical 254 efficient and effective 173 electric and electrical 254 end and finish: verbs 185 especially) and special(ly) 188 except and except for 194 expect, hope, wait and look forward 196 experiment and experience 197 fairly, quite, rather and pretty:
adverbs of degree 199 far and a long way 200 farther and further 201 female and feminine; male
and masculine 203 finally, at last, in the end
and at the end 204 fit and suit 206 forget and leave 209 fun and funny 210 get and go: movement 225 hear and listen (to) 241 here and there 245 high and tall 246 hire, rent and let 247 historic and historical 254 holiday and holidays 248 how and what ... like? 253 ill and sick 266 in case and if 271 its and it's 305 last, the last, the latest 314 later and in 315 lay and lie 316
long and (for) a long time 330 lose and loose 332 loudly and aloud 334 magic and magical 254 maybe and perhaps 346 next and the next; nearest 375 no more, not any more, no longer 379 not and no 382
opportunity and possibility 400 play and game 432 politic and political 254 politics and policy 438 price and prize 468 principal and principle 469
road and street 502
say and teft 504
sensible and sensitive 508
shade and shadow 516
small and little 534
so (conjunction) and then 537
sometime, sometime and sometimes 549
soon, early and quickly 550
such and so 569
speak and talk 553
thankful and grateful 582
travel, journey, trip and voyage 597
whose and who's 627
other words and expressions
[be] able to 3
actually) 11
afraid 28
after: adverb 29
after: conjunction 30
after all 31
ago 33
alike 34
any (any better etc) 57
appear 58
as: structures 581
as such 76
as usual 77
ask 79
at all 83
before: adverb 96
bet 103
better 104
[a] bit 107
but meaning 'except' 116
call 120
can't help 126
contrary 144
control 145
country 150
dare 151
different 155
divorce 337
doubt 163
dress 164
drown 165
elder and eldest 176
else 183
enjoy 186
even 189
eventual(ly) 190
ever 191
ever so, ever such 192
explain 198
feel 202
finished 205
first Cite is the first... etc): tenses 591
get: meanings and structures 223-224
give with action-nouns 226
go/come for a... 227
go/come .. .ing 228
gone with be 229
had better 230
happen to ... 232
hardly, scarcely and no sooner 233
hear, see etc + object + verb form 242
hear, see etc with that-dause 243
help 244
home 249
hope 250
hopefully 251
indeed 273
just 307
know 313
last (this is the last... etc): tenses 591
learn 317
left 319
let: 322-323
life: countable or uncountable 324
like: verb 325
likely 327
look 331
make: 335-336
marry 337
mean 348
means 349
mind (do you mind etc) 351
miss 352
need 366
no (no better etc) 57
no doubt 377
no matter 378
nowadays 388
of course 390
often 391
once: adverb 393
only: focusing adverb 398
open 399
opposite (adjective): position 401
own 405
part 407
place (a place to live, etc) 431
please and thank you 433
point of view 434
prefer 444
presently 467
quite 489
rather 490-491
reason 492
remind 499
[the] rest 501
[the] same 503
see 505
see, look (at) and watch 506
seem 507
smell 535
since: tenses 522
so: adverb meaning like this/that' 536
so: degree adverb (so tired, so fast) 538
so (and not) with hope, believe etc 539
so with say and tell 540
so-and-so; so-so 544
sort of, kind of and type of 551
sound 552
still, yet and already: time 566
such 568
suggest 570
suppose, supposing and what if 571
supposed to 572
surely 573
sympathetic 574
take: time 576
taste 577
than: structures 581
the matter (with) 585
there 586
think 588
time 593
tonight 594
too 595
used to 604
[be] used to .. .ing 605
very and very much 611
wait 612
want 613
-wards 614
way 615
well 617
where (to) 619
why and why not 628
wish: tenses 630
worth 632
yes and no 634


Скачать - Книгу - Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan - depositfiles.com


Скачать - Книгу - Practical English Usage - 3rd Edition - Michael Swan - letitbit.net
Дата публикации:





Теги: :: ::


Следующие учебники и книги:
Предыдущие статьи:


 


 


Книги, учебники, обучение по разделам




Не нашёл? Найди:





2016-12-03 23:06:14