Efficient C++ Performance Programming Techniques - Dov Bulka, David Mayhew


Efficient C++ Performance Programming Techniques - Dov Bulka, David Mayhew - 1999.

   Far too many programmers and software designers consider efficient C++ to be an oxymoron. They regard C++ as inherently slow and inappropriate for performancecritical applications. Consequently, C++ has had little success penetrating domains such as networking, operating system kernels, device drivers, and others.
   Efficient C++ explodes that myth. Written by two authors with first-hand experience wringing the last ounce of performance from commercial C++ applications, this book demonstrates the potential of C++ to produce highly efficient programs. The book reveals practical, everyday object-oriented design principles and C++ coding techniques that can yield large performance improvements. It points out common pitfalls in both design and code that generate hidden operating costs.
   This book focuses on combining C++'s power and flexibility with high performance and scalability, resulting in the best of both worlds. Specific topics include temporary objects, memory management, templates, inheritance, virtual functions, inlining, referencecounting, STL, and much more.
   With this book, you will have a valuable compendium of the best performance techniques at your fingertips.

Efficient C++ Performance Programming Techniques - Dov Bulka, David Mayhew



Table of Content
Table of Content  i
Copyright. v
Dedication  vi
Preface. vi
Introduction viii
Roots of Software Inefficiency. viii
Our Goal . xi
Software Efficiency: Does It Matter? xi
Terminology  xii
Organization of This Book . xiii
Chapter 1. The Tracing War Story. 1
Our Initial Trace Implementation 2
Key Points . 7
Chapter 2. Constructors and Destructors. 9
Inheritance 9
Composition  18
Lazy Construction  19
Redundant Construction . 21
Key Points . 25
Chapter 3. Virtual Functions . 26
Virtual Function Mechanics  26
Templates and Inheritance. 28
Key Points . 31
Chapter 4. The Return Value Optimization  32
The Mechanics of Return-by-Value. 32
The Return Value Optimization 33
Computational Constructors. 35
Key Points . 36
Chapter 5. Temporaries. 37
Object Definition. 37
Type Mismatch . 38
Pass by Value. 40
Return by Value 40
Eliminate Temporaries with op=(). 42
Key Points . 43
Chapter 6. Single-Threaded Memory Pooling 44
Version 0: The Global new() and delete(). 44
Version 1: Specialized Rational Memory Manager. 45
Version 2: Fixed-Size Object Memory Pool . 49
Version 3: Single-Threaded Variable-Size Memory Manager. 52
Key Points . 58
Chapter 7. Multithreaded Memory Pooling. 59
Version 4: Implementation 59
Version 5: Faster Locking. 61
Key Points . 64
Chapter 8. Inlining Basics . 66
What Is Inlining?. 66
Method Invocation Costs  69
Why Inline? . 72
Inlining Details  73
Inlining Virtual Methods. 73
Performance Gains from Inlining . 74
Key Points . 75
Chapter 9. Inlining-Performance Considerations 76
Cross-Call Optimization  76
Why Not Inline?  80
Development and Compile-Time Inlining Considerations 82
Profile-Based Inlining. 82
Inlining Rules  85
Key Points . 86
Chapter 10. Inlining Tricks  87
Conditional Inlining. 87
Selective Inlining  88
Recursive Inlining. 89
Inlining with Static Local Variables  92
Architectural Caveat: Multiple Register Sets . 94
Key Points . 94
Chapter 11. Standard Template Library . 96
Asymptotic Complexity 96
Insertion 96
Deletion. 103
Traversal 105
Find 106
Function Objects  108
Better than STL? 110
Key Points . 112
Chapter 12. Reference Counting . 113
Implementation Details 114
Preexisting Classes . 123
Concurrent Reference Counting 126
Key Points . 129
Chapter 13. Coding Optimizations. 131
Caching 132
Precompute. 133
Reduce Flexibility . 134
80-20 Rule: Speed Up the Common Path 134
Lazy Evaluation  137
Useless Computations  139
System Architecture. 140
Memory Management . 140
Library and System Calls 142
Compiler Optimization. 143
Key Points . 144
Chapter 14. Design Optimizations. 145
Design Flexibility  145
Caching 148
Efficient Data Structures . 150
Lazy Evaluation  151
Useless Computations  153
Obsolete Code 154
Key Points . 155
Chapter 15. Scalability. 156
The SMP Architecture . 158
Amdahl's Law 160
Multithreaded and Synchronization Terminology 161
Break Up a Task into Multiple Subtasks. 162
Cache Shared Data . 163
Share Nothing. 164
Partial Sharing  166
Lock Granularity . 167
False Sharing 169
Thundering Herd  170
Reader/Writer Locks 171
Key Points . 172
Chapter 16. System Architecture Dependencies  173
Memory Hierarchies. 173
Registers: Kings of Memory . 174
Disk and Memory Structures 177
Cache Effects . 179
Cache Thrash . 180
Avoid Branching . 181
Prefer Simple Calculations to Small Branches 182
Threading Effects . 183
Context Switching  184
Kernel Crossing 186
Threading Choices. 187
Key Points . 189
Bibliography



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